...The purpose of our study is to consider several methodological issues relevant for study of the monetary transmission process. These issues involve relative emphasis on monetary shocks as opposed to systematic policy adjustments; vector autoregression vs. Structural modelling research strategies...
这里as opposed to等同于vs.（versus的缩写形式），为了避免重复，作者用了同义表达的技巧。
The appearance of cars has caused many social problems. What is your opinion?
...I believe cars have indeed caused many problems in society and we need to reduce the use of cars.
First of all, we must consider the severe traffic caused by cars...
Another consideration is that cars generate serious pollution...
Admittedly, cars facilitate our travel and make people’s daily commute much easier than before. However, the adverse effects of cars significantly outweigh the benefits they bring.
Any vernment, whether rich or poor, cannot put every penny into education, even though it may be trying to improve overall conditions for education and to create much needed rewards for teachers. Private schools, on the other hand, help to narrow vernment spending on education by charging wealthy students expensive tuition fees in return for superior learning facilities and highly sought after staff. That is why vernments throughout the world, whether developed or developing, encourage individuals and enterprises to establish private schools. The Chinese vernment has even put forward an incentive to support any interested parties, both in China and from overseas, to help promote and expand existing private education across the country.
Firstly, modern people suffer from greater tension so that they have less time to communicate with each other. More and more people are living in urban areas, where life has a quick rhythm. Due to fierce competition, city dwellers have to be hard-working in order to keep up with the pace of city life. Everybody is busy all the time and the other increasing pressures at work deprive us of a casual way of life. Moreover, living in apartments in isolated blocks, we are becoming more and more removed from each other. And more often than not, it is no longer convenient for us to meet one anther freely.
tensions表达了和pressures完全相同的意思，但是这样写不会显得单调重复；划线部分也是一种巧妙的同义改写形式：have less time to communicate with each other意思就是becoming more and more removed from each other，但是用了同义转换立即给文章增添了色彩！
Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans, such as locating sunken ships, cleanup of nuclear waste, prospecting for underwater mineral deposits, and active volcano exploration, are ideally suited to robots. Similarly, rob